Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, 7e
|Part 7. Neoplasia > Section 23. Tumors and Hyperplasias of the Dermis and Subcutaneous Fat >|
Chapter 127. Neoplasias and Hyperplasias of Muscular and Neural Origin
Sections: Tumors of Smooth Muscle, Tumors of Striated Muscle, Benign Proliferations of Nerves: Neuromas, Other Neuromas, Benign Nerve Sheath Neoplasms, Malignant Tumors of Nerve, Miscellaneous Tumors, References.
Excerpt:"The dermis contains smooth muscle fibers in the arrector pili
muscles, in the walls of dermal blood vessels, and in the dartos
muscle of the scrotum, vulva, nipple, and areola. There are three types
of cutaneous smooth muscle lesions: leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas,
and hamartomas. Smooth muscle is recognized histologically by spindle
cell shape, eosinophilic, fibrillary cytoplasm, and blunt-ended,
oval, "cigar-shaped" nuclei. On immunohistochemical
staining, cells express smooth muscle actin and the muscle-specific
intermediate filament desmin, but are negative for S100 protein
and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).The exact incidence of leiomyomas is unknown. In one study, the
10-year incidence was 0.04 percent with the majority of lesions
occurring in women.1 Although leiomyomas are thought
to be relatively uncommon neoplasms, the actual incidence may be
higher than previously believed due to failure to recognize and
biopsy the lesion.Exact incidence is unknown, but older studies suggest that leiomyosarcomas
comprise approximately 3 percent of soft-tissue sarcomas.14 Superficial
leiomyosarcoma occurs in all age groups, and there appears to be
no gender predilection.First..."
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