Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e
|Section 3. Resuscitation >|
Chapter 27. Anaphylaxis, Acute Allergic Reactions, and Angioedema
Sections: Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions, Urticaria and Angioedema, Other Common Allergic Problems, Practice Guidelines, Acknowledgment, References.
Topics Discussed: anaphylaxis; angioedema; hypersensitivity.
Excerpt:"Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate
diagnosis and treatment. Definitions of anaphylaxis have conflicted
over the years, but recent clarity has emerged based on consensus
symposia. In simple terms, "anaphylaxis is
a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause
death."1,2 More detailed revisions of
the definition2 for health professionals using
clinical criteria suggest anaphylaxis is highly likely when any
one of the three criteria listed in Table 27-1 occurs.1Foods, medications, insect stings, and allergen immunotherapy
injections are the most common provoking factors for anaphylaxis,
but any agent capable of producing a sudden degranulation of mast
cells or basophils can induce anaphylaxis. A significant number
of anaphylaxis cases reported have no identified cause (idiopathic
anaphylaxis).Over 12 million visits for allergic reactions occurred in the
U.S. over a period from 1993 to 2004, representing approximately 1% of
all ED visits.9 Anaphylaxis was reported in only
1% of all cases; however, other estimates range from as
high as 5 per 1000 to as low as 2 per 10,000 ED visits.6,10,11..."
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