Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e
|Section 8. Pulmonary Emergencies >|
Chapter 68. Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Aspiration Pneumonia, and Noninfectious Pulmonary Infiltrates
Sections: Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Aspiration Pneumonia and Pneumonitis, Noninfectious Pulmonary Infiltrates, References.
Topics Discussed: aspiration pneumonia; community acquired pneumonia; lung infiltration; pneumonia.
Excerpt:"Pneumonia is an infection of the alveolar or gas-exchanging portions
of the lung. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) accounts for approximately
4 million cases and 1 million hospitalizations per year in the U.S.1,2 It
is the sixth leading cause of death, particularly among older adults.
The incidence of pneumonia caused by atypical or opportunistic infections
is increasing. Recurring epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome or
pandemic influenza may alter future recommendations for the evaluation
and management of this disease. Pneumococcal pneumonia produces
typical symptoms of fever, cough, and rigors, but atypical infections,
infections in compromised hosts, and infections in patients at the
extremes of age may produce atypical findings, such as a change
in mental status or a decline in function. Patients with health
careassociated pneumonia are at risk for infection with
resistant organisms. The patient's environment must be
considered when predicting the causative organism and selecting
treatment choices (Table 68-1).3,4 The
most important environments to be considered in the ED are CAP and
health careassociated pneumonia.Pathogenic organisms may be inhaled or aspirated directly..."
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