Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide, 7e
Chapter 116. The Nose and Sinuses
Sections: Acute Bacterial Sinusitis, Chronic Bacterial Sinusitis, Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Foreign Bodies, Epistaxis, Acknowledgments, References.
Topics Discussed: sinusitis.
Excerpt:"Rhinosinusitis is the term used for infections
that involve both the nose and sinuses. Bacterial sinusitis may
be an acute, subacute, or chronic infection. Acute bacterial sinusitis
is a bacterial infection of the paranasal sinuses with complete
resolution in <30 days. Subacute bacterial sinusitis is defined
by resolution between 30 and 90 days, and chronic sinusitis lasts
>90 days.1 The most common predisposing factor
for bacterial sinusitis is a viral upper respiratory infection (URI).
The incidence of viral URIs in children ages 6 months to 35 months
is approximately six episodes per patient-year, with approximately
8% of those becoming complicated by acute bacterial sinusitis.
Bacterial sinusitis in children is most common in the 12 to 23 months
age group, probably because these children are most likely to be
in day care, predisposing them to URIs.2 In 1996,
health care costs in the U.S. incurred from treating sinusitis in
children <12 years of age had been estimated at $1.8
billion a year.3The sinuses are air cavities lined with ciliated columnar epithelium
that helps mucus clearance by pushing mucus and debris out of the
sinus ostia into the nasal cavity. Blockage of the ostia..."
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